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Jordan river

The earlier roots of Jordan as an independent state can be traced back to The Kingdom of Petra, which was founded by The Nabataeans an ancient Arabic Semitic people who invented the North Arabic Script that evolved into the Modern Arabic script. The Nabataeans Kingdom during its glory controlled the world trade lines by dominating a large area extended from the whole of modern Jordan to the south of Syria and the north of the Arabian Peninsula. As a result, Petra enjoyed prosperity, wealth and independence hundreds of years until it was occupied by the emerging Roman empire. Beside the Nabataeans, Jordan witnessed many other smaller ancient kingdoms including the Kingdom of Edom, the Kingdom of Ammon and the Kingdom of Moab, all of which are mentioned in the Bible as well as in many other old scriptures. During the Greco-Roman influence a number of semi-independent city-states also appeared in Jordan under the umbrella of the Decapolis including: Gerasa (Jerash), Philadelphia (Amman), Raphana (Abila), Dion (Capitolias), Gadara (Umm Qays), and Pella (Irbid). Later, Jordan became part of the Arabic Islamic Empire across its different Caliphates stages including Rashidun Empire, Umayyad Empire and Abbasid Empire. After the decline of the Abbasid, Jordan was ruled by several conflicting powers including the Mongols, the Crusades, the Ayyubid and the Mamluk until it became part of the Ottoman Empire.

With the break-up of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I, the League of Nations and the occupying powers chose to redraw the borders of Southwest Asia. The ensuing decisions, most notably the Sykes–Picot Agreement gave birth to the French Mandate of Syria and British Mandate of Palestine. More than 70% of the British Mandate of Palestine was east of the Jordan river and was known as "Transjordan".

Abdullah I continued to rule until a Palestinian Arab assassinated him in 1951 as he was departing from the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. At first he ruled "Transjordan", under British supervision until after World War II. In 1946, the British requested that the United Nations approve an end to British Mandate rule in Transjordan. Following this approval, the Jordanian Parliament proclaimed King Abdullah as the first ruler of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

In 1950, Jordan annexed the area now called the West Bank (also referred to by Israelis after their occupation of the territory in 1967 as Judea and Samaria), which had been under its control since the armistice that followed the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. This fulfilled a pact that had been made between the Jordanian king and the Jewish Agency, whereby they didn't fight each other in 1948 (except in Jerusalem), but divided Palestine among themselves instead of allowing the independent Palestinian state mandated by the United Nations partition of Palestine.
In 1965, there was an exchange of land between Saudi Arabia and Jordan. Jordan gave up a relatively large area of inland desert in return for a small piece of sea-shore near Aqaba.


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Petra. One of the New 7 wonders of the world. This quiz is about this wonderful place

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